It is already known that antibody is important in people’s life, such as the application of antibody sequencing, nanobody, llama antibody, and so on. Clearly, in terms of the detection of antibody, a series of precautions are required to be noticed, such as the quality. The article will discuss about basic analysis on the detection of antibody. Hope it will he helpful for antibody detection in clinical applications.
Generally speaking, in order to ensure the specificity and sensitivity of antibody tests, both particulate antigens and recombinant antigens are needed to be purified, because only in this way won’t there be some nonspecific reactions. While for the detection on autoantibody, many antigens use tissue extracts so that researchers should pay more attention to purified antigens. And based on the fact that some same antigen components may be presented among different organ components, so the same autoimmune disease can be detected in several different autoantibodies, and the same autoantibody can appear in different autoimmune diseases as well, which will certainly affect the specificity of antibody tests. Actually, in terms of the extraction, purification and synthesis of specific antigens, more efforts are necessary. Moreover, regardless of the types of antibody, different antigen fragments have been used in the detection, which might affect the sensitivity and specificity. Thus, while applying a new antigen, strict control is necessary, for the purpose of determining the application value. However, to be clear, different detection methods might cause different accuracy and sensibility, and the varying quality of kits can also affect test results.
Since a long time, antibody has been identified the protective and non-protective antibody, and some antibodies’ level might immediately decline or even disappear after reaching a peak while some other antibodies can exist for a long term or even for life. Taking the core antibody of hepatitis B as an example, its positive rate is up to about 70%, which makes clinicians confused. In fact, it is the total antibody of anti-HBc, so it might exist for a particularly long time. However, if it had a low titers, it could be regarded as past infection with hepatitis B and be significant in epidemiology. High titers might mean it’s useful in the clinical diagnosis. Another example is the determination of autoantibody. Actually, few normal individuals have some autoantibodies that are innocuous to the body, and these special antibodies can help the body clear some deterioration cells as well. Whereas, according to recent reports on antibody detection, it is the same as other tests, false positive and negative problems still exist in the actual applications. Therefore, more efforts should be done to improve such situation.
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