Articles > HIV-1 drug-resistance and drug-dependence

HIV-1 drug-resistance and drug-dependence

Chris Baldwin  and Ben Berkhout

Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands

In this review, we will describe several recent HIV-1 studies in which a drug-dependent virus variant was selected. A common evolutionary route to the drug-dependence phenotype is proposed. First, the selection of a drug-resistance mutation that also affects the function of the targeted viral protein. Second, a compensatory mutation that repairs the protein function, but in the presence of the drug, which becomes an intrinsic part of the mechanism. The clinical relevance of drug-dependent HIV-1 variants is also discussed.

◊ An open access article from Retrovirology 2007, 4:78, viewed from

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