Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as potential biomarker
Breast cancer is the occurrence of lumps or thickening of the surrounding tissues of the breast mostly in women. Yet it also occurs rarely in men. It leads to the changes in shape and appearance of the breast. As well as the changes of skin like peeling, scaling and crusting of the surrounding nipples. Nowadays, extensive support for breast cancer awareness has helped generate advances in treatment and diagnosis. In which survival rates increased while the death rates continuously declining. Due to some factors such as personalized approach for treatment, early detection and have better knowledge of the disease. In this particular research a tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has been evaluated to convey prognostic information of the breast cancer metastases. Assess its levels, immune composition and ligand expression in metastatic lesions.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as an Immunogenicity of Breast cancer
Evidences suggest the potential of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as biomarker in breast cancer metastatic stage. Even at onset of disease it proves as prognostic biomarker in human epidermal growth factor receptor positive with breast cancer. 94 patients have been studied retrospectively with metastatic breast cancer. Younger women showed significant lowered tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared to older patients above 50 years of age. Generally tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are low but have been recognized significantly at high level with patients having this disease. Moreover, previous reports indicate that at secondary or recurrence of disease a lower tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes level occurs.
Analysis of the characteristics of tumor immune infiltrate differs across metastatic sites. It also suggests that cutaneous tissues might harbor permissive immune microenvironment for tumor growth. In which immune heterogeneity across metastatic sites need to be explored because it is relevant in treatment and immunotherapy. Other factors that are significant to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes composition are those patients treated with multiple lines of chemotherapy. Indeed, heavily pretreated patients might have an impaired antitumor cytotoxic activity of the immune system.
Therefore, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed strong prognostic value in breast cancer patients. Further examinations of its relevance as biomarker reflect a general activation of the immune system. Thus, it indicates that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is a simple method that effectively appreciates the immune activation status of tissue negative tumor. Certainly, given the availability of standardized method of the assessment, this immune marker is technically simple and clinically reliable. Finally, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes provide novel hypothesis-generating data with regards to immune composition and complex interplay with breast cancer metastatic setting.
Source: Prepared by Joan Tura from Springer BMC Breast Cancer Research
Volume 20:62, 22 June 2018