Regulation of the Bone Healing Process by Hormones
*Joáo Paulo Mardegan Issa; *Rodrigo Tiossi; *Amaro Sergio da Silva Mello & **Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa
* Graduate student, Faculty of
Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto,
Sao Paulo, Brazil.
** Professor, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University
of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
An Open Access article from Int J. Morphol, 25(2):385-392, 2007.
SUMMARY: The skeleton has
several important functions, such as structural functions that provide
mobility, support, and protection for the body. It also has an
important function as a reservoir for calcium and phosphorus. The aim
of this article is to show the principal hormones that are involved
with the bone healing process. In this article, it will be pointed the
mineral homeostatic mechanisms in the skeleton, controlled by the
calcium-regulating hormones: parathyroid hormone (PTH) that maintains
the normal extracellular calcium levels by enhancing osteoclastic bone
resorption and liberating calcium from the adult skeleton; estrogen,
considering that both osteoblasts and osteoclasts express estrogen
receptors, it is reasonable to assume that the effects of estrogen on
skeletal remodeling could be caused, at least partly, by a direct
effect on bone cells; androgen with important functions on the adult
male phenotype, anabolic actions on skeleton, muscle and bone,
including the effects of their metabolism in diverse tissues; and
steroids that inhibit the synthesis of proteins, collagen, and
proteoglycans in articular cartilage, and inactivate vitamin D,
limiting calcium absorption by the gastrointestinal tract, and
increasing the urinary excretion of calcium, they also inhibit the
release of growth hormone, which further decreases soft tissue and bone
repair and lead to a decrease in bone, ligament, and tendon strength.
KEYWORDS: Bone; Repair; Hormones