The Trichoderma koningii aggregate species
Gary J. Samuels1,*, Sarah L. Dodd2, Bing-Sheng Lu3, Orlando Petrini4, Hans-Josef Schroers5and Irina S. Druzhinina6
1United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, Rm 304, B-011A, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, U.S.A.
2The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Plant Pathology, Buckhout Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, U.S.A. Current address: New Zialand Institute of Crop and Food Research Ltd., Private Bag 4704, Christchurch, New Zealand
3The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Plant Pathology, Buckhout Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, U.S.A. Current address: Agronomy College, Department of Plant Protection, Zhongkai Agrotechnical College, Guangzhou 510225, China
4Tèra d’Sott 5, CH-6949 Comano, Ticino, Switzerland
5Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Fungal Biodiversity Centre, P.O. Box 85167, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands. Current address: Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova 17, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
6Technische Universität Wien, Abteilung für Mikrobielle Biochemie, Institut für Biochemische Technologie und Mikrobiologie, Getreidemarkt 9/172, A-1060 Wien, Austria.
* Correspondence: Gary J. Samuels, Gary@nt.ars-grin.gov
The morphological concept of Trichoderma koningii is found to include several species that differ from each other in details of phenotype (including conidium morphology, growth rate) and biogeography. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing partial sequences of the translation-elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1), as well as fragments of actin and calmodulin genes, indicate that phenotypic characters typical of T. koningii evolved independently in three well-separated main lineages. Combined molecular and phenotype data lead to the development of a taxonomy with the recognition of twelve taxonomic species and one variety within the three lineages. These lineages include: (1) T. koningii and T. ovalisporum and the new species T. caribbaeum var. caribbaeum, T. caribbaeum var. aequatoriale, T. dorotheae, T. dingleyae, T. intricatum, T. koningiopsis, T. petersenii and T. taiwanense; (2) the new species T. rogersonii and T. austrokoningii, and (3) the new anamorph T. stilbohypoxyli.
Trichoderma koningii s. str. is an uncommon species restricted to Europe and eastern North America; T. caribbaeum var. aequatoriale, T. koningiopsis, and T. ovalisporum were isolated as endophytes of trunks of Theobroma species in tropical America, and T. ovalisporum from the woody liana Banisteropsis caapi in Ecuador; T. koningiopsis is common in tropical America but was isolated also from natural substrata in East Africa, Europe and Canada, and from ascospores in eastern North America, and as an endophyte in Theobroma species; T. stilbohypoxyli, originally described as a parasite of Stilbohypoxylon species in Puerto Rico, is found to be more common in the tropics, besides an endophytic isolate from Fagus in U.K. The additional new species are known almost exclusively from their teleomorphs. Isolates of T. ovalisporum and T. koningiopsis may have biological control potential. A morphophenetic key and a set of tools for molecular species identification were developed.
Taxonomic novelties: Trichoderma austrokoningii/Hypocrea austrokoningii Samuels & Druzhinina sp.nov., T. caribbaeum var caribbaeum/H. caribbaea Samuels & Schroers sp.nov., T. caribbaeum var. aequatoriale Samuels & H.C. Evans var.nov., T. dingleyae/H. dingleyae Samuels & Dodd sp.nov., T. dorotheae/H. dorotheae Samuels & Dodd sp.nov., T. intricatum/H. intricata Samuels & Dodd sp.nov., T. koningiopsis/H. koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suarez & H.C. Evans sp.nov., T. petersenii/H. petersenii Samuels, Dodd & Schroers sp.nov., T. rogersonii/H. rogersonii Samuels sp.nov., T. stilbohypoxyli Samuels & Schroers sp.nov., T. taiwanense/H. taiwanensis Samuels & M.L. Wu sp.nov.
Keywords Actin / barcode / Bayesian phylogeny / local BLAST / biogeography / biological control / cacao / calmodulin / endophytes / GCPSR / Hypocrea / Hypocreales / Hypocreaceae / ISTH / ITS1 and 2 / molecular identification / morphological key / nomenclature / rDNA / RNA polymerase / sequence similarity search / species identification / systematics / translation elongation factor 1-alpha