Objective: To examine the extent to which variations in body composition modulate changes in the lipid profile in response to the ad libitum consumption of a diet rich in carbohydrates (CHOs) (high-CHO diet: 58% of energy as CHOs) or high in fat and in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) (high-MUFA diet: 40% of energy as fat, 23% as MUFAs).
Research Methods and Procedures: Sixty-three men were randomly assigned to one of the two diets that they consumed for 6 to 7 weeks. Body composition and fasting plasma lipid levels were measured at the beginning and the end of the dietary intervention.
Results: The high-CHO and high-MUFA diets induced significant and comparable reductions in body weight and waist circumference. These changes were accompanied by significant and comparable (p lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, the high-MUFA diet had more beneficial effects on plasma triglyceride concentrations (p levels (p = 0.02) compared with the high-CHO diet. Diet-induced changes in waist circumference were significantly associated with changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the high-CHO group (r = 0.39, p = 0.03) but not in the high-MUFA group (r = 0.16, p = 0.38).
Discussion: Improvements in plasma lipids induced by the ad libitum consumption of a high-CHO diet seem to be partly mediated by changes in body weight, whereas lipid changes induced by the high-MUFA diet seem to be independent of changes in body weight.
Key Words: dietary components • lipoprotein • body weight • waist circumference • ad libitum
Archer, W. R., Lamarche, B., Dériaz, O., Landry, N., Corneau, L., Després, J.-P., … Bergeron, N. (2003). Variations in body composition and plasma lipids in response to a high-carbohydrate diet. Obesity Research, 11(8), 978–986. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.135