Ffemale Aedes aegypti mosquito
Zika virus is mainly spread by mosquitoes particularly female that is active during daytime to feed blood in order to lay eggs. This Zika virus when contact with human infects epidermal cells following the lymph nodes down to the bloodstream. Pathogenesis of this virus is similar to dengue fever showing symptoms like fever, joint pain, red eyes and skin rashes. Diagnosis of Zika virus is through blood test, urine or saliva test. Many countries have been affected by this virus which leads to some deaths.That is why this particular research came about to know the important tool to confirmed the etiology of this disease.
Zika virus Infection
Infection of Zika virus is normally established through serum test in order to detect viral nucleic acid. Diagnostic test of this virus have limitations that is why comparing the sensitivity and specificity on different tools is important to get reliable results. Accuracy of any diagnostic method is vital since Zika virus represent public health concern that has been usually misdiagnosed. Results of the study reveal that Zika virus is highly detected in urine and semen.
The Zika virus strains circulating worldwide has low viremia period that is why it compromise diagnostic accuracy. Laboratory examination rely only upon detection of virus RNA through body fluids including serum, plasma and amniotic fluid. Because detection of RNA in blood is usually low on third to fourth day after the onset of disease. That is why it is very important to further characterize the virus dynamics in blood. Whether increase level of virus in is correlated with the severity of the disease or due to immune responses.
Indeed, further developments is needed to reduce the limitations of current diagnostic test. Evaluation and thorough examination for widespread implementation is significant for Zika virus to test accurately. Furthermore, crucial monitoring and preventive action is important to treat Zika fever. Hence, better assay is needed to enhanced diagnosis and surveillance of this virus.
Source: Prepared by Joan Tura from the Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
Volume 49, Issue 1, January–March 2018, Pages 144-147