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Muscle cells are specialized to generate force and movement. Learn about the different types of muscle tissues in this t..

Endemic Flora of New Zealand
New Zealand’s Unique Flora

If New Zealand has lots of unique animals, it's also got a whole lot of unique plants. Find out more about some of them,..

Plant Water Regulation
Plant Water Regulation

Plants need to regulate water in order to stay upright and structurally stable. Find out the different evolutionary adap..

"Opabinia regalis"
The Evolutionary Development of Multicellular Organisms

Multicellular organisms evolved. The first ones were likely in the form of sponges. Multicellularity led to the evolutio..

Direct and indirect physiologic effects of growth hormone
Animal Growth Hormones

Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands of animals. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus are the most impor..

Origins of Life on Earth
Origins of Life on Earth

Earth was created around 4.5 billion years ago and life began not long after. Primitive life likely possessed the elemen..