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Autotrophs flourished, absorbing carbon and light. Soon after, primitive life forms that could assimilate oxygen thrived..

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A running water environment offers numerous microhabitats for many types of animals. Similar to plants, animals in lotic..

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Indicator Species and Endangered Species

Certain species are capable of expressing characteristics indicative of the state of the ecosystem they occupy. They are..

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Human Reproduction and Fertilization

For human species to obviate extinction, reproductive mature adults should be producing viable offspring in order to con..

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Running Water Freshwater Communities

This tutorial introduces flowing water communities, which bring new and dithering factors into the equation for possible..

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Cell Biology

The cell is defined as the fundamental, functional unit of life. Some organisms are comprised of only one cell whereas o..