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Passive and Active Types of Immunity

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell capable of producing a specific immune response to unique antigens. In thi..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..

Direct and indirect physiologic effects of growth hormone
Animal Growth Hormones

Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands of animals. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus are the most impor..

Bryophytes
Bryophytes

Bryophytes are a plant group characterized by being nonvascular. They include the mosses, the liverworts, and the hornwo..

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Seed Plants

Seed plants are vascular plants. They differ from the other vascular plants in producing seeds that germinate into a new..

Salmon jumping upstream in the river
Lotic Communities & Animals

A running water environment offers numerous microhabitats for many types of animals. Similar to plants, animals in lotic..