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dinosaurs
The Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs represented a major turn in the evolutionary development of organisms on Earth. The first dinosaurs were presu..

Schematic diagram of bacterial lactose operon
Gene Action – Operon Hypothesis

This tutorial focuses on the way genes control and determine every aspect of the body. It describes lac operon as an exa..

green plant cells
Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells

Plant cells have plastids essential in photosynthesis. They also have an additional layer called cell wall on their cell..

Growth and Plant Hormones
Growth and Plant Hormones

Plants, like animals, produce hormones to regulate plant activities, including growth. They need these hormones to respo..

DNA carries genes coding for proteins
Genetic Information and Protein Synthesis

Genes are expressed through the process of protein synthesis. This elaborate tutorial provides an in-depth review of the..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..