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Origins of Life on Earth
Origins of Life on Earth

Earth was created around 4.5 billion years ago and life began not long after. Primitive life likely possessed the elemen..

The process of photosynthesis
Photosynthesis – Photolysis and Carbon Fixation

Photosynthesis is the process that plants undertake to create organic materials from carbon dioxide and water, with the ..

Bryophytes
Bryophytes

Bryophytes (nonvascular plants) are a plant group characterized by lacking vascular tissues. They include the mosses, th..

Geological Periods
Geological Periods

Geological periods is a study guide that cites the different geological periods on Earth's timeline. Each has a brief ov..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..

Cells in different stages of meiosis
Meiosis – The Genetics of Reproduction

Meiosis is a form of cell division that creates gametes. It is comprised of two divisions that in the end, the resulting..