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Biological Cell Defense
Biological Cell Defense

Organisms employ different strategies to boost its defenses against antigens. Humans have an immune system to combat pat..

Origins of Life on Earth
Origins of Life on Earth

Earth was created around 4.5 billion years ago and life began not long after. Primitive life likely possessed the elemen..

primitive arthropods
Arthropods

The arthropods were assumed to be the first taxon of species to possess jointed limbs and exoskeleton, exhibit more adva..

Physiological Homeostasis
Physiological Homeostasis

Homeostasis is essential to maintain conditions within the tolerable limits. Otherwise, the body will fail to function p..

Bryophytes
Bryophytes

Bryophytes are a plant group characterized by being nonvascular. They include the mosses, the liverworts, and the hornwo..

Gene Pool and Speciation
The Gene Pool and Speciation

According to Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, preferable genes are favored by nature in the gene pool, and ..