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primitive arthropods
Arthropods

The arthropods were assumed to be the first taxon of species to possess jointed limbs and exoskeleton, exhibit more adva..

Still Water Animals
Still Water Animals

Animals living in aquatic habitats have diversified and evolved through time. They eventually occupy ecological niches a..

Structural depiction of catalase, an enzyme
Protein Activity and Cellular Metabolism

Proteins have a crucial role in various biological activities. Get to know how proteins are able to perform as enzymes, ..

Origins of Life on Earth
Origins of Life on Earth

Earth was created around 4.5 billion years ago and life began not long after. Primitive life likely possessed the elemen..

Bryophytes
Bryophytes

Bryophytes (nonvascular plants) are a plant group characterized by lacking vascular tissues. They include the mosses, th..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..