Congestive heart failure (cHF)- When the pumping ability of the heart can no longer meet the metabolic needs of the body’s tissue. the heart pumps less blood than it receives. Blood accumulate in the chambers and stretches the walls. Less blood circulate to organs. Kidneys, sensitive to reduce oxygen, retain water and electrolites to increase blood volume.
Treatment of cHF involves use of combinations of diuretics, digoxin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Calcium channel blockers are contraindicated.

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