In humans, the chromosome that is the largest and spans about 249 million nucleotide base pairs, likely to contain about 1900 to 2100 genes, and metacentric
In humans, the chromosomes occur in pairs and a typical somatic cell would contain 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus. Each of these pairs has a characteristic length and banding pattern. There are two types of chromosomes: autosomes and allosomes. There are also two sets: the first set comes from the mother and the second set, from the father. Using idiograms, each chromosome may be identified one from the other based on the relative size and the banding pattern.
Chromosome 1 is a metacentric autosome. It spans about 249 million nucleotide base pairs and therefore represents about 8% of the total DNA in human cells.1 It is likely to contain about 1900 to 20100 genes. On its short arm (p-arm), some of the genes are AADACL3 (coding for Arylacetamide deacetylase-like 3), BCAS2 (for Breast carcinoma amplified sequence 2), DPH5 (for Diphthine synthase), NGF (for Nerve Growth Factor), and ZZZ3 (for ZZ-type zinc finger-containing protein 3). On its long arm (q-arm), some of the genes are ANGPTL1 (for Angiopoietin-related protein 1), FBXO28 (for F-box protein 28), INTS3 (for Integrator complex subunit 3), TNNT2 (for cardiac troponin T2), and ZNF695 (for Zinc finger protein 695). Due to the multifarious genes located in chromosome 1, this chromosome is associated with several diseases as well. Hearing loss, Alzheimer disease, glaucoma and breast cancer have been associated with certain defective genes located on chromosome 1.
1 Gregory, S.G., Barlow, K.F., McLay, K.E., Kaul, R., Swarbreck, D., Dunham, A., et al. (May 2006). “The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1”. Nature. 441 (7091): 315–21.