In humans, the autosome that spans about 58.6 million base pairs, likely contains about 1500 genes, and is a metacentric chromosome
In humans, the chromosomes occur in pairs and a typical somatic cell would contain 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus. Each of these pairs has a characteristic length and banding pattern. There are two types of chromosomes: autosomes and allosomes. There are also two sets: the first set comes from the mother and the second set, from the father. Using idiograms, each chromosome may be identified one from the other based on the relative size and the banding pattern.
Chromosome 19 is a metacentric autosome. It spans almost 58.6 million base pairs. It likely contains about 1500 genes. Some of the genes found in this chromosome are A1BG (coding for alpha-1-B glycoprotein), ATG4D (for autophagy related 4D, cysteine peptidase), CACTIN (for cactin), HCST (for hematopoietic cell signal transducer), KRTDAP (for keratinocyte differentiation-associated protein), MBOAT7 (for lysophospholipid acyltransferase 7), PLIN4 (for perilipin 4), and SEPW1 (for selenoprotein W). It bears several genes encoding for various zinc proteins.
Some of the diseases and disorders related to the genes on chromosome 19 include Alzheimer’s disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, congenital hypothyroidism, Donohue syndrome, and prolidase deficiency.