In humans, the chromosome that spans more than 186 million base pairs, likely to contain about 700 to 800 genes, and is a submetacentric chromosome
In humans, the chromosomes occur in pairs and a typical somatic cell would contain 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus. Each of these pairs has a characteristic length and banding pattern. There are two types of chromosomes: autosomes and allosomes. There are also two sets: the first set comes from the mother and the second set, from the father. Using idiograms, each chromosome may be identified one from the other based on the relative size and the banding pattern.
Chromosome 4 is a submetacentric autosome. It spans almost 186 million base pairs (i.e. about 6.5 % of the total DNA). There are more than 700 to 800 genes on this chromosome. Some of the genes are CSN2 (coding for beta-casein), EMCN (for endomucin), SEPT11 (for septin-11), TENM3 (for teneurin transmembrane protein 3), TENM3 (for teneurin transmembrane protein 3), WFS1 (associated with Wolfram syndrome 1), DHX15 (for DEAH-box helicase 15), CSN2 (for beta-casein), and MYL5 (for myosin light chain 5).
Some of the diseases and disorders related to the genes on chromosome 4 include haemophilia C, Huntington’s disease, Hirschprung’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Wolfram syndrome.