In humans, the chromosome that spans about 181 million base pairs, likely to contain about 700 to 900 genes, and is a submetacentric chromosome
In humans, the chromosomes occur in pairs and a typical somatic cell would contain 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus. Each of these pairs has a characteristic length and banding pattern. There are two types of chromosomes: autosomes and allosomes. There are also two sets: the first set comes from the mother and the second set, from the father. Using idiograms, each chromosome may be identified one from the other based on the relative size and the banding pattern.
Chromosome 5 is a submetacentric autosome. It spans almost 181 million base pairs (i.e. about 6 % of the total DNA). It is regarded as the fifth largest chromosome. However, it bears relatively fewer genes (likely between 700 and 900). Some of the genes are CAST (encoding for calpastatin), CPLX2 (for complexin-2), SFXN1 (for sideroflexin-1), and STC2 (for stanniocalcin-2).
Some of the diseases and disorders related to the genes on chromosome 5 include Cockayne syndrome, Cri du chat, homocystinuria, myelodysplastic syndrome, Netherton syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, Sandhoff disease, spinal muscular atrophy, and tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome.