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Young plant growing from the soil.
Soils

Nutrients in the soil are essential to the proper growth of a land plant. This tutorial deals with the properties of soi..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..

Transpiration
Water in Plants

The movement of molecules (specifically, water and solutes) is vital to the understanding of plant processes. This tuto..

Ecosystem Succession
Ecosystem Succession

If the balance of nature is left untouched, landscapes can change dramatically over time. A previous ecosystem is supers..

running freshwater community
Running Water Freshwater Community Factors

This tutorial noted some of the physical and chemical factors that provide the framework of a running water community in..

Water Cycle
The Water Cycle

The water cycle (also referred to as the hydrological cycle) is a system of continuous transfer of water from the air, s..