An obligate gram-negative bacterium involved as the major pathogen that causes Q fever in both human and mammals.
Coxiella burnetii has distinct cell structure properties consists of two membranes an inner and outer membrane and does not contain thick cell wall composed of peptidoglycan. It also utilized sugars such as xylose and glucose aided by a membrane gradient.
Coxiella burnetii intracellular cell is tailored to survive under harsh conditions where it can withstand heat, antibacterial compound and dryness permitting this bacterium to persist outside the host for a long period of time as well as tends to carry on in an environment with low pH. Its life cycle is uniquely replicates inside the phagolysozome endocytosed by a macrophage.
Coxiella burnetii infection in human is asymptomatic but can be acute disease that caused zoonosis and Q fever which in pregnant women may lead to abortion, stillbirths and premature deliveries. Its natural infection in the environment is transmitted via ticks as a primary vector and reservoir in which cattle, goat and sheep frequently source of human infections transmitted mostly via external waste excretions from infected animals.
Species: Coxiella burnetii
• Q fever