A species of the genus flavivirus that causes an acute febrile and sometimes haemorrhagic disease in humans and is spread by a bite of an infected mosquito
Dengue virus is a species of the genus flavivirus. Flavivirus is a genus of the family flaviviridae (also known as group b arbovirus) containing several subgroups and species. Most of them are arboviruses, which mean they are transmitted by an arthropod species such as mosquitoes and ticks. For dengue virus, it makes use of mosquitoes, particularly Aedes mosquitoes, primarily A. aegypti. Other species are A. albopictus, A. polynesiensis, and A. scutellaris.
The dengue virus is an RNA virus. Its genome is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA of about 11,000 nucleotide bases. It is encased in an icosahedral envelope. The genome codes for three structural proteins: capsid protein (C), membrane protein M (prM), and envelope protein (E). It also codes for seven nonstructural protein molecules: NS1, NS2a, NS2b, NS3, NS4a, NS4b, NS5 essential for its replication. Short non-coding regions on both ends are also present. There are five serotypes of dengue virus identified based on their antigenicity.1 These are Dengue Virus (DENV)-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4 and DENV-5.
1 Normile, D. (October 2013). “Tropical medicine. Surprising new dengue virus throws a spanner in disease control efforts”. Science 342 (6157): 415.