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Ferns and their relatives are vascular plants, meaning they have xylem and phloem tissues. Because of the presence of va..

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The movement of molecules (specifically, water and solutes) is vital to the understanding of plant processes. This tuto..

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Human Biology – Food and Digestion

This tutorial recognizes the importance of food as a source of energy that will fuel many biological processes. A good d..

Early Mammals on Earth
Early Mammals on Earth

The Earth's ecosphere was rapidly changing and throwing up a wide range of ecological niches that new adaptive organisms..

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The Evolutionary Development of Multicellular Organisms

Multicellular organisms evolved. The first ones were likely in the form of sponges. Multicellularity led to the evolutio..

Adaptation Tutorial
Adaptation Tutorial

Adaptation, in biology and ecology, refers to the process or trait through which organisms or the populations in a habit..