(biology) To fecundate; to render fertile or make (a female) capable of producing an offspring.
(agriculture) To supply or provide with nourishment, e.g. fertilizer and other nutrients, so as to make fruitful or productive.
Word origin: From fertile » late ME (< MF) < L fertilis, fruitful, akin to ferre, to bear.
Related forms: fertile (noun), fertilization (noun), fertilizational (adjective).
Synonym: fecundate, fecundify.