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Freshwater Ecology
Freshwater Ecology

Freshwater ecology focuses on the relations of aquatic organisms to their freshwater habitats. There are two forms of co..

Digestion and Absorption of Food
Digestion and Absorption of Food

The gastrointestinal system breaks down particles of ingested food into molecular forms by enzymes through digestion and..

"Opabinia regalis"
The Evolutionary Development of Multicellular Organisms

Multicellular organisms evolved. The first ones were likely in the form of sponges. Multicellularity led to the evolutio..

Homeostatic Mechanisms and Cellular Communication
Homeostatic Mechanisms and Cellular Communication

Homeostasis is the relatively stable conditions of the internal environment that result from compensatory regulatory res..

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Meiosis and Alternation of Generations

Plants are characterized by having alternation of generations in their life cycles. This tutorial is a review of plant m..

Direct and indirect physiologic effects of growth hormone
Animal Growth Hormones

Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands of animals. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus are the most impor..