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An artist depiction of a Precambrian multicellular life form.
The Evolution of Cell Organelles

The nucleus containing the genetic material, DNA, and the mitochondria, well-identified as the "powerhouse of the cell",..

Schematic diagram of DNA replication
DNA Structure & DNA Replication

DNA is a double helix structure comprised of nucleotides. A nucleotide, in turn, is made up of phosphate molecule, deoxy..

Principles of Hormonal Control Systems
Principles of Hormonal Control Systems

Hormones are essential in the regulation of the activity of the various biological systems of the human body. The ineffi..

human brain structure
The Conscious & Unconscious Nervous System

This tutorial elaborates on how the nervous system works, particularly at the tissue level of the brain. There are three..

Biological Cell Defense
Biological Cell Defense

Organisms employ different strategies to boost its defenses against antigens. Humans have an immune system to combat pat..

Body temperature regulation by the hypothalamus
Temperature Regulation in Animals

This tutorial elucidates body temperature regulation. Know the details here to learn how the body sets the body temperat..