Dictionary > Immunoglobulin D

Immunoglobulin D

An immunoglobulin (antibody) with δ-type of heavy chain, occurs primarily as an antibody (along with IgM) to be expressed on the surface of B cells, and therefore, is thought to be associated with B cell development and activation
The plasma cell produces immunoglobulins (or antibodies) as an immune response to an antigen, i.e. non-self agent. An immunoglobulin (Ig) is a glycoprotein with a Y-shape. The basic structure of a monomeric unit of antibody consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. In each of these chains, there are variable and constant regions. The immunoglobulin heavy chain, in particular, is the large polypeptide subunit. It can be used to classify the various isotypes (or classes) of immunoglobulins. In humans and other mammals, the five classes are: (1) immunoglobulin A (IgA), (2) immunoglobulin D (IgD), (3) immunoglobulin E (IgE), (4) immunoglobulin G (IgG), and (5) immunoglobulin M (IgM).
The immunoglobulin D (IgD) has δ (gamma)-type of immunoglobulin heavy chain (thus, the acronym D). The light chain of IgD may either be kappa (κ) or lambda (λ). Its molecular formula is δ2 κ2) or δ2λ2. Similar to common immunoglobulins, IgDs are produced and expressed on the surface of plasma cells. Some of the IgDs are released into the bloodstream. However, the amount of IgDs in serum is very low (i.e. 0.2% of the total immunoglobulins). In their secreted form, IgDs are monomers. That means they have only one functional unit of antibody.
The immune function of IgDs is still unclear. Nevertheless, they are thought to be associated with B cell activation.

  • IgD

See also:

  • B cell
  • immunoglobulin

    You will also like...

    Origins of Life on Earth
    Origins of Life on Earth

    Earth was created around 4.5 billion years ago and life began not long after. Primitive life likely possessed the elemen..

    Ecological Research Measuring & Analysis
    Ecological Research: Measuring & Analysis

    This lesson is about the methods used for ecological research, such as quadrat and transect sampling, canopy fogging, an..

    Chemical composition of the body
    Chemical Composition of the Body

    The body is comprised of different elements with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen as the major four. This tutorial..

    running freshwater community
    Running Water Freshwater Community Factors

    This tutorial noted some of the physical and chemical factors that provide the framework of a running water community in..

    Oligodendrocyte and Schwann cell
    The Central Nervous System

    Myelin sheath is essential for a faster conductivity of signals. Know more about this feature of some neurons in the Cen..

    Human Nervous System
    The Human Nervous System

    The nervous system is essentially a biological information highway. This tutorial gives an overview of the nervous syste..