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Protein Activity and Cellular Metabolism

Proteins have a crucial role in various biological activities. Get to know how proteins are able to perform as enzymes, ..

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Protein Variety

The sequence of amino acids determines the type of protein. Protein is synthesized according to the sequence of nucleoti..

An artist depiction of a Precambrian multicellular life form.
The Evolution of Cell Organelles

The nucleus containing the genetic material, DNA, and the mitochondria, well-identified as the "powerhouse of the cell",..

3D rendering of an antibody
Passive and Active Types of Immunity

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell capable of producing a specific immune response to unique antigens. In thi..

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Lotic Communities & Animals

A running water environment offers numerous microhabitats for many types of animals. Similar to plants, animals in lotic..

A sperm cell fertilizing an ovum
Human Reproduction and Fertilization

For human species to obviate extinction, reproductive mature adults should be producing viable offspring in order to con..