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Early Mammals on Earth
Early Mammals on Earth

The Earth's ecosphere was rapidly changing and throwing up a wide range of ecological niches that new adaptive organisms..

Golgi apparatus (3-D illustration)
Role of Golgi Apparatus & Endoplasmic Reticulum in Protein Synthesis

The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are the organelles involved in the translation step of protein synthesis a..

Cell Biology
Cell Biology

The cell is defined as the fundamental, functional unit of life. Some organisms are comprised of only one cell whereas o..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..

The Human Physiology
The Human Physiology

Physiology is the study of how living organisms function. Thus, human physiology deals specifically with the physiologic..

green leaf - close up view
Leaves

Leaves are the major photosynthetic organ of a plant. Apart from that, they are also crucial to water movement. In this ..