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mRNA
Protein Synthesis

Part of the genetic information is devoted to the synthesis of proteins. mRNA, a type of RNA, is produced as a transcri..

Homeostasis by water regulation
Homeostasis of Organism Water Regulation

Osmoregulation is the regulation of water concentrations in the bloodstream, effectively controlling the amount of water..

Direct and indirect physiologic effects of growth hormone
Animal Growth Hormones

Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands of animals. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus are the most impor..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..

green leaf - close up view
Leaves

Leaves are the major photosynthetic organ of a plant. Apart from that, they are also crucial to water movement. In this ..

Plant biology
Plant Biology

Plantlife can be studied at a variety of levels, from the molecular, genetic and biochemical level through organelles, c..