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An artist's depiction of the origin of amphibians
Amphibians & Early Reptiles

Obtaining air outside an aquatic environment required species to acquire suitable adaptations, and this was the case of ..

Biological Viruses
Biological Viruses

Viruses possess both living and non-living characteristics. This unique feature distinguishes them from other organisms...

Biological Cell Defense
Biological Cell Defense

Organisms employ different strategies to boost its defenses against antigens. Humans have an immune system to combat pat..

Independent Assortment and Crossing Over
Independent Assortment and Crossing Over

This tutorial describes the independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over as important events in meiosis. Read..

Consciousness and behavior
Consciousness and Behavior

Human consciousness and behavior are an interesting topic since they are determined and controlled by the brain. Conscio..

Early Mammals on Earth
Early Mammals on Earth

The Earth's ecosphere was rapidly changing and throwing up a wide range of ecological niches that new adaptive organisms..