Dictionary > Mitochondrial disease

Mitochondrial disease

A disease resulting from dysfunctional mitochondria that may arise due to mutations in the mitochondrial or nuclear DNA
The mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) is the organelle that generates most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the process of cellular respiration. The space within the inner membrane is referred to as the mitochondrial matrix. The matrix contains enzymes, mitoribosomes, and the genetic material, i.e. tRNA and DNA. DNA found within the mitochondrion is called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to identify it from the DNA in the nucleus. In humans and many other species, the mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother. Nevertheless, there are certain instances that paternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome in humans was described. Mutation involving the mitochondrial DNA may lead to a disease, which is particularly referred to as a mitochondrial disease.
A mitochondrial disease is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. It may be acquired or inherited. Some of the diseases being linked to dysfunctional mitochondria include DAD (diabetes mellitus and deafness), myoneurogenic gastrointestinal encephalopathy, and subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy.
Example of mitochondrial diseases are as follows:

  • mitochondrial myopathy (e.g. Kearns-Sayre syndrome)
  • Ballinger-Wallace syndrome
  • Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy
  • Leigh syndrome

See also:

  • metabolic disorder
  • mitochondria
  • mitochondrial DNA

    You will also like...

    Lights' Effect on Growth
    Lights’ Effect on Growth

    This tutorial elaborates on the effect of light on plant growth. It describes how different plants require different amo..

    Cambial cells
    Plant Tissues

    Plant organs are comprised of tissues working together for a common function. The different types of plant tissues are m..

    Chromosomes X and Y and Sex Determination
    Chromosomes X and Y and Sex Determination

    This tutorial looks at sex determination via the sex chromosomes, X and Y. Read it to get more info on X and Y chromosom..

    Direct and indirect physiologic effects of growth hormone
    Animal Growth Hormones

    Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands of animals. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus are the most impor..

    Buttress roots

    This study guide tackles plant roots in greater detail. It delves into the development of plant roots, the root structur..

    An artistic depiction of Dunkleosteus fish

    The sea was teeming with life. Eventually, through reproduction and continued variation, fish came about. There are over..