noun, plural: neuroanatomies
(1) A branch of neurology that deals scientifically with the anatomy of the nervous system
(2) The anatomical aspect of the nerves of a particular organ or organism
Neuroanatomy is the scientific study of the nervous system. It may also pertain to the anatomy (i.e. structure) of the nerves of an organ or an organism. It may be a branch of neurology or a branch of anatomy. The person that specializes in neuroanatomy is referred to as a neuroanatomist. The first record of the history of neuroanatomy could be the Edwin Smith Papyrus, an ancient medical text (c. 1600 BCE) written by ancient Egyptians. This document includes medical and scientific records on injuries, dislocations, wounds, tumors, and military surgeries. Another important milestone in ancient history in neuroanatomy is the Greek Alcmaeon. He was the one to describe that the brain rules the body and not the heart, and the senses depend on the brain.1 Other notable neuroanatomists include Herophilus, Erasistratus, Galen, and Rhazes. More scientific works on neuroanatomy came upon when Thomas Wilis, a physician, published Cerebri anatome, which served as the foundation of neuroanatomy.
1 Rose, F (2009). “Cerebral Localization in Antiquity”. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences. 18 (3): 239–247.