A scientific discipline that studies the information processing effected by the brain
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system and is concerned with the structure, development, function, chemistry, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. Modern tools and technologies (e.g. molecular biology, electrophysiology, computational methods, etc.) led to the advancement of research on nervous system. As a result, neuroscience is now comprised of various branches. Neuroheuristics is a sub-discipline in neuroscience that aims to explore and understand the information processing effected by the brain. Etymologically, the term comes from the Greek neuron, which pertains to the nerve, and euriskein, meaning to find or to discover or to refer to a problem-solving procedure that is often intuitive or speculative and therefore leads to a solution in some cases but not in others.1 It aims to explore and develop strategies that would advance the understanding of the information processing effected by the brain by utilizing a bottom-up strategy (i.e. the bringing together of systems to come up with more complex systems) or a top-down strategy (i.e. the breaking down of a system in order to gain insight into the compositional sub-systems).
1 Berlyne, D. E., Sternberg, R. J., & W. Edgar Vinacke. (n.d.). Thought. Encyclopædia Britannica (web). Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/thought.