Neuropilin 1 is a membrane-bound isoform that binds to various ligands and co-receptors, necessary for cell adhesion, migration, and survival. In humans, the receptor is encoded by NRP1 gene that is mapped on chromosome 10. The gene encodes two neuropilins that contain specific protein domains that participate in various signaling pathways controlling cell migration. It has an N-terminal extracellular domain finished from complement-binding coagulation factor V and meprins that also contain small spanning and small cytoplasmic domain. As a receptor, it is involved in axon guidance expressed in dendritic cell and resting T cells. Thus, it mediates the interactions of dendritic cells and T cells that are significant for the initiation of the primary immune responses. It also plays a versatile role in angiogenesis, cell survival, axon guidance, invasion, and migration. Soluble neuropilin 1 interacts in hemophilic manner on both dendritic and T cells. Neuropilin 1 mediates an interaction with the essential element in the initiation of the primary immune response like agrin molecule necessary for neurologic and immunologic synapses. It is also involved in the development of the cardiovascular system, the formation of the neuronal circuits and organogenesis outside the nervous system. Abbreviation: NRP. Synonyms: vascular endothelial cell growth factor 165 receptor, CD304, VEGF165R, NP1, BDCA4.
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