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Primitive Animals

Life, as we know it today, is presumed to have started in the sea and many of them were likely eukaryotic animal-like or..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..

New Zealand Fauna
New Zealand’s Unique Fauna

Meet some of New Zealand's unique fauna, including endemic insects, frogs, reptiles, birds, and mammals, and investigate..

Darwin's Finches - Natural Selection
Darwin and Natural Selection

This tutorial investigates the genetic diversity in more detail. It also delineates how certain alleles are favored over..

Community Patterns

Learn about community patterns and the ecological factors influencing these patterns. Revisit some of the ecosystems you..

Stem
Stems

Stems primarily provide plants structural support. This tutorial includes lectures on the external form of a woody twig ..