An anaerobic gram-negative and rod shaped bacterium involved as pathogens in early onset periodontitis in humans.
Porphyromonas gingivalis has a proteolytic enzymes used in metabolisms collagenolytic enzymes and glycylpropyl peptidase. It has a capsular polysaccharide which downregulates the cytokine production including IL-8 and TNF-alpha during infections indicating host avoidance responses. It also contains fimbriae linked in cellular attachment typified to be the main factors of bacterial adhesion, invasion and colonization as well as foray of membrane vesicles in host cells.
Porphyromonas gingivalis inhabits in the mouth below the gingival surface and this bacterium works together with other bacteria forming biofilms in subgingival layer by removing the existing gram-positive facultative bacteria with gram-negative pathogenic bacteria eliciting an inflammatory response that upshot from the gums shedding from teeth.
Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in gingivitis and periodontitis manifested by the accumulation of several gram-negative bacteria in the gum line and build-up forming plaque which in turns forms lesions around the tooth that go beneath the gum layer as it grows more ligaments has been destroyed leading to the separation of tooth from the jaw.
Species: Porphyromonas gingivalis