A receptor that binds the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin with high affinity composed of transmembrane domain, cytoplasmic domain and ligand binding extracellular domain necessary for signal transduction.
Prolactin Receptor gene is mapped on chromosome 5p13-p12 containing 11 exons with six non-coding exons and one alternative spliced isoform which is unable to transduced prolactin signaling. It belongs to class I cytokine receptor family that acts as prosurvival factor for spermatozoa through inhibition of sperm capacitation via suppression of SRC kinase activation.
Prolactin Receptor transcription is regulated by multiple and tissue specific promoter and contains extracellular binding domain with 2 fibronectin-like type III as well as intracellular domain needed for signal transduction pathway. It has been identified in various tissues including the mammary gland, central nervous system, skin, heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, GI tract, spermatozoa, lymphoid tissue, adrenal cortex, pituitary, organs of reproductive system and bone. It is also presents in cancer tissues like breast cancer and other tumoral tissues.
Prolactin Receptor displays no enzymatic activity but signals during activation of related cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases like Janus kinase 2 and Tec protein tyrosine kinase. Its dimerization also induces the Mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway through JAK2 and FYN kinases activation.
Gene name: PRLR
Protein name: Prolactin receptor