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mRNA
Protein Synthesis

Part of the genetic information is devoted to the synthesis of proteins. mRNA, a type of RNA, is produced as a transcri..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..

Young plant growing from the soil.
Soils

Nutrients in the soil are essential to the proper growth of a land plant. This tutorial deals with the properties of soi..

Lotic community of algal species
Lotic Communities & Algae

Lotic communities have conditions that are rather harsh for typical plants. Thus, the diversity of plant species in loti..

Biological Viruses
Biological Viruses

Viruses possess both living and non-living characteristics. This unique feature distinguishes them from other organisms...

An artist depiction of a Precambrian multicellular life form.
The Evolution of Cell Organelles

The nucleus containing the genetic material, DNA, and the mitochondria, well-identified as the "powerhouse of the cell",..