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primitive arthropods
Arthropods

The arthropods were assumed to be the first taxon of species to possess jointed limbs and exoskeleton, exhibit more adva..

"Opabinia regalis"
The Evolutionary Development of Multicellular Organisms

Multicellular organisms evolved. The first ones were likely in the form of sponges. Multicellularity led to the evolutio..

Early Mammals on Earth
Early Mammals on Earth

The Earth's ecosphere was rapidly changing and throwing up a wide range of ecological niches that new adaptive organisms..

Photosynthesis and respiration
Plant Metabolism

Plants are responsible for incredible feats of molecular transformation. Plant processes, such as photosynthesis, photop..

Muscle
Muscle

Muscle cells are specialized to generate force and movement. Learn about the different types of muscle tissues in this t..

Ploidy
Polyploidy

Humans are diploid creatures. This means that for every chromosome in the body, there is another one to match it. Howeve..