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Stem
Stems

Stems primarily provide plants structural support. This tutorial includes lectures on the external form of a woody twig ..

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The Evolutionary Development of Multicellular Organisms

Multicellular organisms evolved. The first ones were likely in the form of sponges. Multicellularity led to the evolutio..

Origins of Life on Earth
Origins of Life on Earth

Earth was created around 4.5 billion years ago and life began not long after. Primitive life likely possessed the elemen..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..

Genetics and Evolution
Genetics and Evolution

Humans are diploid creatures. This means that for every chromosome in the body, there is another one to match it. Howeve..

Chemical composition of the body
Chemical Composition of the Body

The body is comprised of different elements with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen as the major four. This tutorial..