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primitive arthropods
Arthropods

The arthropods were assumed to be the first taxon of species to possess jointed limbs and exoskeleton, exhibit more adva..

Plant Auxins
Plant Auxins – Phototropism & Geotropism

Plants produce hormones to regulate their growth. Auxins, for instance, influence plant growth. Know the role of auxin i..

river
Running Water Freshwater Communities

This tutorial introduces flowing water communities, which bring new and dithering factors into the equation for possible..

sponge
Primitive Animals

Life, as we know it today, is presumed to have started in the sea and many of them were likely eukaryotic animal-like or..

Water Cycle
The Water Cycle

The water cycle (also referred to as the hydrological cycle) is a system of continuous transfer of water from the air, s..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..