Dictionary > ATP synthase

ATP synthase

Definition
noun, plural: ATP synthases
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ATP from the phosphorylation of ADP with inorganic phosphate, using a form of energy, such as the energy from a proton gradient.
Supplement
This enzyme consists of two major segments: Fo portion, the transmembrane proton channel and F1 portion, the catalytic component. The proton channel component allows the diffusion of protons (hydrogen ions) from an area where there are more hydrogen ions to an area where there are less hydrogen ions due to a proton gradient. As the proton (H+ ion) moves down the concentration gradient this moves the enzyme in a spinning motion, which brings ADP and inorganic phosphate together to form a bond, thus creating ATP molecule. The resulting ATP molecule is released so that a new ADP molecule can enter for another phosphorylation.
This enzyme can also work in reverse using the energy release from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against their thermodynamic gradient. Since it can also use ATP as a source of energy it is also aptly called ATP synthetase.
See also: chemiosmosis


You will also like...

Evolution of Life - Ancient Earth
Evolution of Life – Ancient Earth

Autotrophs flourished, absorbing carbon and light. Soon after, primitive life forms that could assimilate oxygen thrived..

Carbohydrates, fats and proteins - dietary sources
A Balanced Diet – Carbohydrates and Fat

Apart from vitamins, the human body also requires high energy sources such as carbohydrates and fats. If you want an ove..

Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems
Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems

There are many environmental factors that arise due to the usage of water in one way or another and for every action tha..

Peppered moth ("Biston betularia") melanic and light form
Examples of Natural Selection

Darwin's Finches are an example of natural selection in action. They are an excellent example of the way species' gene p..

New Zealand Flora & Fauna
Ecology & Biodiversity: New Zealand Flora & Fauna

New Zealand is known for its unique biodiversity, caused by its remarkable geography and geologic history. Breaking away..

Early Mammals on Earth
Early Mammals on Earth

The Earth's ecosphere was rapidly changing and throwing up a wide range of ecological niches that new adaptive organisms..