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The Human Physiology
The Human Physiology

Physiology is the study of how living organisms function. Thus, human physiology deals specifically with the physiologic..

Genetics and Evolution
Genetics and Evolution

Humans are diploid creatures. This means that for every chromosome in the body, there is another one to match it. Howeve..

Kidneys
Kidneys and Regulation of Water and Inorganic Ions

The kidneys are responsible for the regulation of water and inorganic ions. Read this tutorial to learn about the differ..

Chromosome Mutations
Chromosome Mutations

Mutations can also influence the phenotype of an organism. This tutorial looks at the effects of chromosomal mutations, ..

Cells in different stages of meiosis
Meiosis – The Genetics of Reproduction

Meiosis is a form of cell division that creates gametes. It is comprised of two divisions that in the end, the resulting..

Wart-like leaf galls on grape leaves
Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..