Dictionary > Chemiosmotic theory

Chemiosmotic theory

Definition
noun
A theory postulated by the biochemist Peter Mitchell in 1961 to describe ATP synthesis by way of a proton electrochemical coupling.
Accordingly, hydrogen ions (protons) are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space via the hydrogen carrier proteins while the electrons are transferred along the electron transport chain in the mitochondrial inner membrane. As the hydrogen ions accumulate in the intermembrane space, an energy-rich proton gradient is established. As the proton gradient becomes sufficiently intense the hydrogen ions tend to diffuse back to the matrix (where hydrogen ions are less) via the ATP synthase (a transport protein). As the hydrogen ions diffuse (through the ATP synthase) energy is released which is then used to drive the conversion of ADP to ATP (by phosphorylation).
Supplement
This theory was not previously well accepted until a great deal of evidence for proton pumping by the complexes of the electron transfer chain emerged. This began to favor the chemiosmotic hypothesis, and in 1978, Peter Mitchell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Also called: chemiosmotic (coupling) hypothesis
See also: chemiosmosis, mitochondrion


You will also like...

Ecological Research Measuring & Analysis
Ecological Research: Measuring & Analysis

This lesson is about the methods used for ecological research, such as quadrat and transect sampling, canopy fogging, an..

vitamins
A Balanced Vitamin Diet – Vitamins A – K

A balanced diet is essential to a healthy organism. Insufficiency or too much of a particular element or compound, such ..

Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems
Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems

There are many environmental factors that arise due to the usage of water in one way or another and for every action tha..

Selective Breeding
Selective Breeding

Gregor Mendel's studies into Monohybrid and Dihybrid crossing and Charles Darwin's study of evolution and natural select..

Homeostatic Mechanisms and Cellular Communication
Homeostatic Mechanisms and Cellular Communication

Homeostasis is the relatively stable conditions of the internal environment that result from compensatory regulatory res..

Human Neurology
Human Neurology

Human Neurology deals essentially with the nervous system of humans. It also features the various theories put forward b..

Related Articles...

No related articles found

See all Related Topics