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Origins of Life on Earth
Origins of Life on Earth

Earth was created around 4.5 billion years ago and life began not long after. Primitive life likely possessed the elemen..

Pikas are an indicator species for climate change
Indicator Species and Endangered Species

Certain species are capable of expressing characteristics indicative of the state of the ecosystem they occupy. They are..

A sperm cell fertilizing an ovum
Human Reproduction and Fertilization

For human species to obviate extinction, reproductive mature adults should be producing viable offspring in order to con..

Golgi apparatus (3-D illustration)
Role of Golgi Apparatus & Endoplasmic Reticulum in Protein Synthesis

The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are the organelles involved in the translation step of protein synthesis a..

Schematic diagram of DNA replication
DNA Structure & DNA Replication

DNA is a double helix structure comprised of nucleotides. A nucleotide, in turn, is made up of phosphate molecule, deoxy..

Lentic community
Freshwater Communities & Lentic Waters

Lentic or still water communities can vary greatly in appearance -- from a small temporary puddle to a large lake. The s..