Dictionary > Glycosidase

Glycosidase

Definition
noun, plural: glycosidases
(biochemistry) An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of a glycoside
Supplement
Glycosidases are enzymes that assist in the hydrolysis of glycosides. They are capable of cleaving the glycosidic bonds such as those in cellulose and hemicellulose.
An example of glycosidases is the lysozyme. Lysozymes are capable of destroying the baceterial cell walls, particularly the gram-positive bacteria. Bacterial cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan of N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglycosamine linked by glycosidic bonds. A damaged cell wall of bacteria makes them lose their cell shape and rigidity. They become vulnerable to the adverse effects of turgor pressure caused by high concentration of proteins and molecules inside the cell relative to the external environment. Apart from the anti-bacterial activity, glycosidases are also involved in other natural metabolic activities, such as trimming mannosidases in N-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis. In prokaryotes, particularly E. coli, glycosidases are involved in the regulation of the lac operon. In most eukaryotes, glycosidases are located inside the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes. They also occur in the intestinal tract and in saliva wherein they act on lactose, starch, sucrose, trehalose, etc.
Other examples of glycosidases are lactase, O-GlcNAcase, amylase, hyaluronidase, sucrose, and maltase.
Synonym(s):

  • glycoside hydrolase
  • glycosyl hydrolase

See also:

  • lysozyme
  • hydrolysis


  • You will also like...

    Water Cycle
    The Water Cycle

    The water cycle (also referred to as the hydrological cycle) is a system of continuous transfer of water from the air, s..

    running freshwater community
    Running Water Freshwater Community Factors

    This tutorial noted some of the physical and chemical factors that provide the framework of a running water community in..

    Human gastrointestinal tract
    Human Biology – Food and Digestion

    This tutorial recognizes the importance of food as a source of energy that will fuel many biological processes. A good d..

    Types and Causes of Brain Damage
    Types and Causes of Brain Damage

    This tutorial describes the different types and causes of brain damage. Find out how genetics, physical injury, lack of ..

    An artistic depiction of a human embryo
    Growth and Development of a Human Baby

    Upon fertilization, a zygote forms and develops into an embryo. This tutorial elaborates on the growth and development f..

    Genetic engineering
    Genetic Engineering Advantages & Disadvantages

    This tutorial presents the benefits and the possible adverse eventualities of genetic engineering. Know more about this ..

    Related Articles...

    No related articles found

    See all Related Topics