Dictionary > Glycosuria

Glycosuria

Definition
noun, plural: glycosuria
The presence of atypically high sugar level in urine
Supplement
Glycosuria is a condition wherein glucose is excreted into the urine. Under normal condition, glucose should not be present in the urine. The kidneys should be able to filter glucose back into the bloodstream. However, due to the presence of elevated sugar level in the bloodstream the kidneys fail to reabsorb all glucose and therefore glucose is excreted into the urine. This condition commonly occurs in individuals with untreated diabetes. The inability to synthesize insulin to remove excess sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream and convert it into its storable form, glycogen, results in increased sugar circulating in the bloodstream.
Glycosuria also results from problems in the kidney itself, such as when the kidney fails to reabsorb glucose. The latter is referred to as renal glycosuria. Glucose is supposed to be reabsorbed from the filtrate through the proximal tubule of the kidney across the tubular epithelium and back into the bloodstream. The proximal tubule, though, can reabsorb a limited amount of glucose. If the sugar level exceeds the renal threshold of glucose, about 160 – 180 mg/dL, the proximal tubule becomes overwhelmed by the high amount of glucose and begins excreting glucose into the urine.1
Glycosuria may also lead to dehydration. The presence of sugar in the urine results in the excessive water loss in a process called osmotic diuresis.
Synonym(s):

  • glucosuria

See also:

  • diabetes
  • sugar
  • Related term(s):

    Reference(s):

    1 AIDA on-line’ Explanations. Retrieved from http://www.mendosa.com/www-2aida-org/explain.htm#10.


    You will also like...

    Developmental Biology
    Developmental Biology

    Developmental biology is a biological science that is primarily concerned with how a living thing grows and attains matu..

    Digestion and Absorption of Food
    Digestion and Absorption of Food

    The gastrointestinal system breaks down particles of ingested food into molecular forms by enzymes through digestion and..

    Direct and indirect physiologic effects of growth hormone
    Animal Growth Hormones

    Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands of animals. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus are the most impor..

    Biological Cell schematic diagram
    Biological Cell Introduction

    It only takes one biological cell to create an organism. A single cell is able to keep itself functional through its 'mi..

    complete-dominance
    Dominance

    This tutorial presents Gregor Mendel's law of dominance. Learn more about this form of inheritance and how it can be pre..

    Neural Control Mechanisms
    Neural Control Mechanisms

    Neurons generate electric signals that they pass along to the other neurons or target tissues. In this tutorial, you wil..

    Related Articles...

    No related articles found

    See all Related Topics