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Biological Cell Defense
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Organisms employ different strategies to boost its defenses against antigens. Humans have an immune system to combat pat..

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Stems primarily provide plants structural support. This tutorial includes lectures on the external form of a woody twig ..

Origins of Life on Earth
Origins of Life on Earth

Earth was created around 4.5 billion years ago and life began not long after. Primitive life likely possessed the elemen..

Independent Assortment and Crossing Over
Independent Assortment and Crossing Over

This tutorial describes the independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over as important events in meiosis. Read..

Still Water Animals
Still Water Animals

Animals living in aquatic habitats have diversified and evolved through time. They eventually occupy ecological niches a..

Evolution of Life - Ancient Earth
Evolution of Life – Ancient Earth

Autotrophs flourished, absorbing carbon and light. Soon after, primitive life forms that could assimilate oxygen thrived..