Species of primitive human beings that lived between 28,000 and 300,000 years ago. Various specimens of these species were found across Europe and the Middle East. The distinctive traits that make them different from modern humans include a bigger brain size (i.e. approx. 1500 cc), shorter but brawnier stature, marked mid-face forward projection, larger and rounder eye sockets, broad nose, larger teeth, and jaw lacking a projecting bony chin.
The species has three distinct subgroups. However, the differences were only slight. There were theories that they might be living alongside modern humans and might have interacted with them in the early times. However, they became extinct 28,000 years ago and did not survive probably due to environmental conditions that could extremely be harsh to them. There was evidence suggesting the possible use of advanced tools akin to modern human beings. They could have used fire for cooking, warmth, and protection. Evidence also suggests that they wore clothes of animal hides wrapped around their bodies.
- Neanderthal man
- Homo sapiens neanderthalensis